Interior Design – light

Interior Design – light

Natural and artificial light

Lighting and light fittings

Interior – Natural Lighting

Before beginning to devise a lighting scheme in a home, house, or any building, consider the amount of natural light entering the various spaces.  Natural light should be the starting point of any lighting scheme.

When looking at space layouts, the orientation of rooms are also important.  Main living areas and kitchens should be south facing to benefit from its warm and bright light all day long.  West facing light provides sunlight at the hottest part of the day, therefore these spaces are ideal for late afternoons and early evenings use, thus absorbing the softer light at this time.  East facing spaces get much sun early in the morning and almost no sun for the rest of the day, and north facing spaces receive a cool to harsh light.  Therefore, the choice of specific spaces should be made, keeping their use and orientation in mind, in order to make the best use of natural light that can play an important part in the overall ambience and feel of a building.

Interior – Lighting and the Building Regulations

According to the EU building regulations low-energy light sources should be installed, as a building should be ‘energy efficient’.  And an energy performance certificate EPC certified by an architect has to be produced to validate this.  Fluorescent / Compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), LEDs or discharge lamps fitted with low energy screw or bayonet bulbs are some examples.

So how much light is needed?

The first step is to calculate the square meters of a space; then each square meter is multiplied by 25 Watts (25 Watts = 250 Lumen), giving a total amount of the wattage.   This light wattage need not come from a single source, it can come from a combination of different lights distributed around the space.

Interior – Light sources and their purpose

There are three types of light sources; namely ambient lighting, task lighting, and accent or mood lighting, where a combination of all three may exist in one space.

Ambient lighting is the general illumination of a room as a ceiling hanging light or wall lights.  Task lighting provides targeted illumination where a specific activity takes place, as a reading light, cooking lights or any specific lights required for work.  Floor lamps, table lamps and desk lamps, specific kitchen lights or mirror lights are all typical examples.  Accent and Mood lighting are used to highlight an object.  A spotlight directed to a work of art, or special feature, and an LED strip, are some examples.   The latter are not a necessary source of light and can be sensor operated to light up only when in close proximity.

General illumination and well being

Well being can be gained from the good use of artificial lighting.  Glare-free and uniform illumination can improve productivity and avoid headaches.  Daylight is perceived as a bluish white light and has a temperature range of 5000K* or higher.  In artificial lighting, a light bulb produces light perceived as yellowish-white at a temperature of 2700K, and as the light temperature increases to around 3000K to 3500K, the light colour appears less yellow and more white.  The different light temperatures can impact our moods.  Soft white as opposed to bright and cool whites light temperatures are the key to our better wellbeing.  The former works better in living rooms and bedrooms and have a calming and relaxing effect, whilst the latter are better in kitchens and bathrooms creating an energetic feeling and invoke more contrast to colours.

Placing mirrors within a space does appear to enlarge that space.  However, placing a mirror across from a window helps reflect light around a room maximizing the light.  This scenario, the reflection of the window on the mirror also creates an illusion of never ending windows and light…and space.

Natural and artificial light source fittings

In modern times, both natural and artificial light source fittings, apart from enhancing the light source in a given space, also form part of the interior design theme.  These fittings have to blend into the design mood and style.

Natural Lighting

Skylights, large windows, bay windows, french windows/doors and mirrors, bring in natural light to an interior space.

Artificial Lighting

Chandeliers and wall lights are the two main sources of illumination of a space.

Floor Lamps, table lamps, desk lamps, and bedside lamps, under kitchen under-cabinet lights, fan lights, and mirror lights are the main sources of task lights.  Spot lighting, LEDs are typical examples of accent or mood lighting.

Lighting as part of an interior design theme

Lighting should play an important part in interior design.  Both natural lighting and artificial lighting should be well selected and blended, and be positioned carefully in spaces to attribute to a harmonious Deco mood.

*K for Kelvin is a unit of measurement used to describe the hue of a specific light source.

Exterior Spaces

Exterior Spaces

Importance of Exterior Spaces and their Design

Why is an outdoor space beneficial to the family?

Outdoor spaces are not only aesthetically pleasing but are great to incorporate into one’s day-to-day living.  An outdoor space, small or large is filled with a great range of stimuli that deserve to be experienced.  Here are some of the health, social and financial benefits of utilising  outdoor space in a pleasing  way.  Improvement in health and happiness has been recognized and show a positive relationship between green spaces and sea proximity to general well being.

The advantages of children having the opportunity to play in natural environments include quality time with the family, the development of social skills, language and comprehension, physical activity, increased exposure to sunlight, improved physical and mental health and environmental learning.   

Time spent outside contributes to reducing stress, promoting good vision, boosting your immune system, and decreasing symptoms of depression.

Exterior spaces in a home, house or building

Outside spaces exist in different shapes and sizes; some very small and some quite large.   The names of these outside spaces are sometimes misused or confused or used differently in different countries and architectural styles.  This is a very basic description:

A balcony is an elevated platform on the outside of a building at first floor or higher levels and enclosed by railings, balustrades, walls or screens.  Some balconies are a little larger than others.  However, this space allows for a romantic dinner for two or for children and pets to get some fresh air.

A front yard or front garden is the portion of land between the street and the front of the house.  This is often ten feet, and tiled and thus a yard, but can also be larger and covered by a lawn, with flowers and trees and thus a garden.

A back yard or back garden are similar, but located at the back on the building.

A detached or semi detached villa enjoys a garden that surrounds the building at ground floor level.   These gardens often include a swimming pool, a BBQ deck, patios possibly with a pergola structure, sometimes a tennis court, and a vegetable garden within the grounds.  This garden size various from approximately 500 sq meters to 2500 sq meters or plus.

Courtyard / quadrangle is a space or a courtyard that is a rectangular, square or oblong space in plan, the sides of which are entirely or mainly surrounded by parts of a large building and usually located at ground level.

In very old buildings, the idea of a courtyard, was to catch the sun and wind and circulate it around the building to generate heat, and eliminate humidity. All windows were south-facing.   Some modern quadrangles resemble cloister gardens of medieval monasteries called garths, usually square and enclosed by covered arcades, much like those seen in college or university campuses.  Most are open air, but some modern ones have been roofed with glass structures.

A veranda or verandah is a roofed open-air gallery or porch, attached to the outside of a building.  A veranda is often partly enclosed by railings and frequently extends across the front and sides of the structure.  A Veranda and a porch are similar in structure, and both are at the ground level with a roof and partial enclosure.   The difference is that a veranda can surround the house whereas a porch is strictly an extension to the front-side of the house.

A porch is a covered shelter projecting at the front of a house or building entrance.

A patio by definition is a paved outdoor area adjoining a house, generally used for outdoor dining or recreation,but can also be detached from the main building and may have has a roof or pergola.  Easy access to the indoor or an outdoor kitchen is an important consideration.   It is a larger area than a porch.

A terrace is built at ground floor level and is an ideal space for a get-together, children’s party, or greeting family and friends.   However, in modern architecture, a terrace can also be built over a flattened roof at first or even second floor level, as an open air extension to a living room or even a bedroom.   And lastly, the penthouse outside area is also referred to as a terrace.

A deck is a flat, usually roofless platform adjoining a house. Decks are typically made of wood and are elevated from the ground.  It can include spaces for BBQs, dining, as well as seating.   Decks are generally enclosed by railings and sometimes may be covered by canopies or pergolas.

Large condominium apartment complexes often have large communal garden and playground areas.  These are situated within the complex grounds, and are for the exclusive use of complex residents.

Communal outer spaces

Unfortunately, not all house owners have properties with appropriately large  balconies, outside spaces and gardens to accommodate their family’s needs.  Therefore, it is of great importance to have communal outer spaces as parks, tree lined walkways, and children’s playgrounds available within a neighborhood.   

Some outer space structures

Pergolas, gazebos and pavilions are all structures built over outside spaces.

The three biggest differences between gazebos and pergolas are in their visual structures.  Gazebos are typically round or octagonal, while pergolas are square or rectangular. Gazebos have a roof, while pergolas have cross beams, but no roof.  A pergola is more often built over decks or patios.  And a pavilion is a large structure for big events as a wedding and entertainment event.

Factors that enhance outside spaces

Outer spaces should have easy accessibility to the different parts of the building.  For example, a dining patio should be in good proximity to the kitchen…

If views from the property are limited or not so pleasant, then it is paramount to create attractive scenes within the outer spaces to simulate the mood.  However, if panoramic, sea or country views can be easily seen from the outer spaces, they should be given their rightful importance.

Whether outer spaces are small or larger, maintenance is of great significance.  Landscaping, zoning need to be efficiently designed.  A badly maintained space may be worse than an empty space.   A swimming pool should have a self cleaning device, pool water well chlorinated and well circulated / filtered automatically between the pool and the pool reserve tank.    Continual cleaning up of foliage and general debris should be done, to avoid drain blockages during rainy times.  Trees need to be trimmed and pruned and fruit or vegetables harvested and not left to rot.  Electronic devices should be installed to deter rodents, pests, and insects.

Trees should be planted in the best locations to create beneficial shade areas or where they can be beneficial in reducing the sun’s heat on a buildings.  Evergreen trees give continual mood throughout the year, and fruit trees are an advantageous addition.   Trees may also be planted in areas between neighboring properties  to create attractive Privacy walls.

In spacious outer areas, an outdoor bar or a wood fire / BBQ area are common amenities.

Planning of landscaping and zoning of outer spaces; furniture and fittings

The first and most important step, before starting out to organize outer spaces is to choose a theme to create a mood; and adhering to one theme will create flow and harmony throughout the outer areas.   It is also important to bear in mind affordability before starting out, in order to keep specific budget limitations.

Select the furniture and furnishings wisely to suit the mood, in both colour, style and durability.   Select the correct materials and make your outer space special, your escape area.  Benches placed in the shade of trees create a welcoming environment.

Foliage – trees, flowers and plants should be carefully chosen to create intelligent zoning and landscaping, and also return a bonus for one’s hard work.   Trees absorb carbon dioxide from which they produce oxygen, fruit trees, certain plants, and herbs produce fruit, flowers, beautiful aromas from herbs for kitchen use, greenery and a beautiful scenario.

The appropriate lighting , sound, aroma, shelter and shade all help to create a perfect ambience to fit the theme mood chosen.

Water is an essential commodity for cleaning, maintenance, watering of plants and trees and other uses, so water access points should be placed well around the outer spaces to facilitate these functions.  There should also be good comfortable access for refilling the pool with fresh water by external water bowsers when the water needs changing from season to season.

Landscaping and zoning of the outer spaces need to be carefully planned choosing efficient and hardwearing tiles, wood, attractive pebbles and / or turf, creating interesting areas and pathways to fit around the greenery and trees.

And finally outer space, is a place suitable for relaxation, a place to reduce stress, ideal for children to play and be healthy, and a house extension, with the possibility of entertaining family and friends, and at the same time being an investment.



Kitchens and Furniture


The majority of people eat food as an essential means of survival, whilst others survive only to indulge in and enjoy luxurious, healthy or tasty food!   And for some others eating a balanced diet of fresh food in season, serves to keep them healthy.

Brief history of Kitchens, lifestyle and furniture in different spaces

Throughout time and until today, in most countries around the world, obtaining / purchasing food, it’s preparation, and it’s consumption plays a large part of the family’s daily life.

For this reason, and as early as the Middle ages, kitchen spaces were created for the preparation of food.  Whilst dining spaces were organized for communication and food consumption among the family, with adjacent living spaces for relaxation before the family retired to their bedrooms / bathrooms to rest and be ready to start out the next day.   This typical lifestyle is still similar to our present day.

Furniture and fittings

All these House / home spaces require furniture and fittings.  Kitchen spaces require utensils, appliances and storage cupboards.  Whilst the rest of the home requires different furniture, some having a specific use, whilst other may be purely decorative.

Throughout the Middle ages and until modern times, society’s way of life and habits have changed in their traditions and ways of life, because of evolution, education, and modernization.  From bartering of game, fish, crops, spices, dairy products, vegetables and fruit, to the introduction of money that facilitated trade, availability of water and electricity, modern inventions and appliances, efficient means of transport and communication, to electronics and eco friendly homes.   This of course applies also to most commercial outlets………

In the same way kitchen furniture and fittings, and other furniture have changed  in style, as a cause of changes in fashions and primarily their various  uses.

Kitchens and food habits

During the Middle Ages from 5th century and up until the late Middle Ages, there existed a significant difference in the lifestyle of commoners and high society, namely in their cooking methods and diets, preservation of food and affordability.   Salt was a very precious commodity, and salt bars were used as currency of exchange in some parts of the world, whilst up until around 1500AD sugar was also very scarce and expensive and not always available, until the arrival of technological improvements that transformed them into cheaper bulk commodities.

In the late Middle Ages, the increasing wealth of middle class merchants and traders meant that commoners began emulating the aristocracy, and threatened to break down some of the symbolic barriers between the different classes.

Kitchens Spaces

The history of the kitchen Space is fascinating!  Changes in kitchen design often reflected economic and societal changes.

In the Middle Ages cooking was essentially done on an open wood / coal hearth within a one-room home or within the great hall of large structures, above which was a ventilation opening for the fumes to exit.  Smoke and soot were a constant irritation the eyes and lungs and this area was filled with noise, mess  and smells. They were extremely busy spaces and could also sometimes be too hot and uncomfortable.  This area however, was also the primary source of heat, light and safety.

However, with the invention of the chimney around the 11th century the general layout of the great hall was sub-divided, and by the late Middle Ages two rooms became common in many households: the living room (where guests were received and business was conducted), and the kitchen.  In time, there were also further subdivisions, of a food preparation area, a storage area and a cooking area.

Economic trends and politics had a major influence on the design and function of the kitchen.   Between the late Medieval Age until today, the creation of chimneys, later gas supply, water and sewage systems, electricity and now also electronics in homes continued to improve the efficiency and sanitation of the work space of kitchens.

Between the late Medieval Age until the 1970s thé kitchen area was separated from the dining and living areas, but in today’s modern world the kitchen has once again gained its importance and usually forms a part of the dining and living room; a natural gathering place for entertaining, welcoming family, friends or to conduct business.

Modern kitchen spaces

The kitchen we know today is an indispensable component to contemporary life.  Kitchens are fitted with abundant fitted storage cupboards, and work tops.

Abundant electrical / electronic and gas appliances; as a cooking Hob, oven, fridge / freezer, dish washer, deep fryer, food mixer and juicer; hot and cold water supply, breakfast table and chairs, as well as various cooking and serving utensils, crockery and cutlery.

Furniture for other spaces.

The styles, fashions and component materials of furniture and fittings has changed with time.  And with the coming of efficient transport and communications systems and with other parts of the world, the importation of furniture and fittings from other cultures also have become fashionable.

However, most rooms require some essential furniture, as settees, armchairs, and chairs, a fireplace  in the living room; a large table and chairs, dresser and showcases in the dining room, desks and bookshelves in the study or studying areas, beds, large cupboards, dresser with mirror, chest of drawers, small desk and chair in the bedrooms, decorative furniture in hallways, corridors and stair landings. These rooms are often also decorated with hanging paintings, photographs, mirrors, memorabilia, and other decorative items.  A washing machine and laundry equipment in the laundry room; and a workbench and tools in the garage.

Therefore, whether fitting out a small studio apartment, a town house, a country house or a villa, the kitchen still occupies a place of importance, and the furniture and fittings can create the mood of the home.

Interior Design

Interior Design

Interior Design

What is Interior design?

Interior design is about the balance of light and shade, colour and form; styles change with evolution and time, but also reflect how all members of a household including animals and pets, utilize spaces in houses, homes, or how customers feel in a commercial environment, including cafes, restaurants or places of entertainment.

Interior design also effects our lifestyles, our work spaces, amusement / hobby’s areas, as well as our health and well being.  Well designed homes need to fit the lifestyles of families, and likewise stylish commercial premises must meet the needs of its customers.

It involves careful use of space planning, textiles, different materials, paintwork, colour, sustainability, health and safety issues, as well as original and creative effects presented by a designer, both in luxury and simplified scenarios.

Brief History of interior design and styles adopted from other countries.

During the Middle Ages, from the 5th to the 15th centuries, there was a wide variety of homes.   There were castles, manor houses, monestaries, mud huts; and also apartments over shops by the late Middle Ages.  Certainly, housing and interior design differ in different parts of the world.    

However, during the Middle Ages, necessities in a typical home were more important than their appearances.   Wall hangings were very popular.  Light, warmth, vicinity to spring water or communal wells and waste disposal were of great importance and the typical home was not very comfortable.   Houses, homes and small buildings were dark and utilized daylight to its best and candle light at sunset, as windows were small spaces in walls; window glass was not available to most.  Wall hangings would act as space separators and helped to keep the warmth within the building that most often consisted of one large room.   On the other hand wealthy peoples homes consisted of castles and manor homes that were spacious and more luxurious.  Monasteries and manor houses covered much of the manufacture of commodities including grain, fruit and vegetables, herbs, healthy beverages and were also knowledgeable on herbs and spices medicinal remedy preparations. A Hermit’s Cookbook: Monks, Food and Fasting in the Middle Ages, by Andrew Jotischky, first published in 2011 by Continuum International Publishing Group, London, (a catalogue record of this book is available from the British Library, London UK.) makes  interesting reading.

The Renaissance Period covering the 15th and 16th centuries encouraged larger interior spaces, created the apartment and enhanced the sale of goods in shops at ground floor level, as opposed to the market place stalls.

The Baroque Period 1600 – 1750 then expanded on these larger interior spaces by filling a room with treasures that expressed the interior design of a building and building styles.

The coming of the Victorian Age 1837 – 1901 gave more importance to those living in a space, their needs, lifestyle and use.

During Post war and modern times, home deco became more reflective of ones personal  habits and tastes.

In Modern Times


In modern times, the re-introduction of older styles and influence from other countries namely, the Middle East, Africa, South America, Asia as well as different parts of the EU, add to the final result, and these styles are now universal.


The industrial Revolution 1760 to approximately 1840, namely going from manual production to industrial manufacture, greatly helped the manufacturing industries.   Available textiles, both natural and synthetic, are used for curtains, furniture upholstery, bedclothes and introduce colour and print motives, such as foliage, floral, or modern art designs to the deco scenario.

Different interior design materials

Different materials such as wood, cement, ceramic and synthetic tiles, chrome deco, stained glass windows, colourful fused glass wall deco, use of mirrors, gypsum moldings, plastering, wall paper, and light fittings create the mood.


Colour is also a powerful design tool.  In order to create harmony within a building, the understanding of colour is essential; warm and hot colour hues vs. cold and cool colour hues, composing and coordinating them, understanding primary, secondary and tertiary colours and their compleamentaries.  Good use of colour can create calmness, cheer, comfort, stress or drama.  And creative colour combinations can bring warmth to large spaces or enhance restricted areas.

Sustainability and easy maintenance of interior design deco can help the durability of materials used in buildings.  This also depends on the needs and affordability.

Eco friendly, health and safety

Health and safety precautions are also paramount.  In time, some materials for example the use of asbestos has been found to be a health hazard. The maximum use of natural light and fresh airflow ventilation, help to control the building’s relative humidity and temperature levels in a natural way.   The use of plants can also improve the air quality, the deco.

The Interior Designer

The Modern era gave rise to the professional interior designer.  Designers now work together with clients to create spaces with a distinct ambience and well being